Cave and Cosmos: Shamanic Encounters with Another Reality - Michael Harner 2013


A reminder: The acronyms MONOR and UMR refer, respectively, to the Mapping of Nonordinary Reality (MONOR) project of the Foundation for Shamanic Studies and “unpublished MONOR reports” (UMR). This project involves collecting and archiving shamanic knowledge, including almost five thousand reports by Westerners about what they found in their shamanic journeys into nonordinary reality, which have been used as the main source for this book’s accounts.


1. Eliade, Shamanism, 135.

2. M. Harner, The Way of Shaman, 31.

3. In a recent anthropological journal, it was said that I left anthropology when I “entered the ‘real’ world of the Shuar,” formerly called the “Jívaro.” (See Rubenstein, “On the Importance of Visions among the Amazonian Shuar.”) However, I never left anthropology, only academia, in order to expand the boundaries of anthropology and knowledge.

4. At present the Shamanic Knowledge Conservatory is closed to nonstaff until funds are found for a librarian.

5. Speaking of scholarship, those readers familiar with my research on ecological and economic factors involved in human social evolution (e.g., M. Harner, “Population Pressure and the Social Revolution of Agriculturalists”) may wonder how I can reconcile these topics with my research on shamanism. The answer is simple: I do not need to reconcile them, for they deal with two different realities, ordinary and nonordinary. The two realities sometimes can overlap, such as in healing and gaining wisdom, and that gives me hope for our planet’s future. I see the two pursuits as complementary and necessary for the advancement of human knowledge and the survival of life on Earth.

6. E.g., Cowan 1996; Ingerman 2004.


1. de Angulo, “The Background of Religious Feeling,” 354.

2. M. Harner, “Tribal Wisdom,” 163. “Hearing voices” is not the same as visual perception and is not a recommended beginning path to shamanism.

3. Benedict, “The Concept of the Guardian Spirit.”

4. Cline, “Religion and World View,” 139.

5. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 10–16.

6. Cline, “Religion and World View,” 133–82.

7. Ibid., 137–42.

8. Ibid., 138.

9. Park, “Paviotso Shamanism,” 98; and Shamanism in Western North America, 26–29.

10. Park, Shamanism in Western North America, 28.

11. Ibid., 27.

12. Raymond Hoferer, the late Paviotso Ghost Dance Chief of the Walker River people, told me in May 2006 that the cave power quest is no longer practiced.

13. Park, Shamanism in Western North America, 27.

14. M. Harner, “Wounded Knee,” 1973.

15. At no point during the cave quest did I experience seeing phosphenes or any imagery other than the appearance of Elieth as described.

16. For more details about some spirits in our world, see Chapter 4.


1. During a presentation by Michael Harner at the annual meeting of the Transpersonal Psychology Association, Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, California. Anonymous, August 1993.

2. Personal communication, Dr. William H. Wilson, August 2, 2012, August 2, 2012, facilitated by the kind offices of Dr. Leanne Hinton.

3. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009.

4. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009.

5. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009. At the “Three-Year Program of Advanced Initiations in Shamanism & Shamanic Healing,” Amanda Foulger, 2008.

6. Ken Emerson, April 2011, UMR.


1. Narby and Huxley, Shamans through Time.

2. Cf. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, xvi.

3. Lévy-Bruhl, Les fonctions mentales. See also Lowie, The History of Ethnological Theory, 216–21.

4. Jaynes, The Origin of Consciousness.

5. Devereux, “Shamans as Neurotics,” 12. See also Silverman, “Shamans and acute schizophrenia.”

6. La Barre, Ghost Dance.

7. Jung, The Red Book, 249 n. 161.

8. Ibid., 246, 249. I am indebted to Kevin Turner for calling this passage to my attention.

9. Eliade, Shamanism, 306.

10. For information on Cushing, see Green, Zuni: Selected Writings of Frank Hamilton Cushing.

11. For more information, see M. Harner, The Jívaro, 1–6.

12. Ibid., 84, 90–91, 134–35 passim.

13. In a later stay with the Shuar, I had the fortune to experience the acquisition of spirit power with the aid of powerful plants at a sacred waterfall, as recounted in The Way of the Shaman.

14. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 1–8.

15. Dick Kendig is deceased, but Dorothy survives and has given me permission to use their real names.

16. At that time I had not heard of William Burroughs’s experiments with yagé, the Colombian name for ayahuasca. See Burroughs and Ginsberg, The Yage Letters, 1963.

17. For more information, see M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, xiii–xvi, 46–51.

18. I revisited them in 1964, 1969, and 1973. Some of the results are recounted in M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 8–18.

19. M. Harner, “The Role of Hallucinogenic Plants in European Witchcraft.”

20. Wasson and Heim, Les champignons hallucinogènes du Mexique.

21. Hofmann, LSD: My Problem Child.

22. Huxley, The Doors of Perception.

23. See Metzner, Birth of a Psychedelic Culture.

24. For example, Wasson and Heim, Les champignons hallucinogènes du Mexique.

25. For example, Castaneda, The Teachings of Don Juan.

26. Wasson and Wasson, Mushrooms, Russia, and History.

27. A foot drum usually consists of board planks covering a hole in the ground, act ing as a resonance chamber. Usually up to three persons can simultaneously dance and drum on it.

28. Bogoras, “The Chuckchee-Religion,” 424.

29. Personal observation and participation, 1994 and 1999.

30. See Neher, “Auditory Driving”; M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 31, 50–53; Max field, Effects of Rhythmic Drumming; and Turow, “Auditory Driving as a Ritual Technology.”

31. For example, view Heick and Mueller, The Sucking Doctor, cited in the bibliography.

32. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009.

33. Cf. Ridington, Trail to Heaven.

34. Notably among the Amur River peoples of eastern Siberia. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009.

35. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009.

36. Mänchen-Helfen, Reise ins asiatische Tuwa, 117.

37. Personal communication from a Mongolian shaman, 2012.

38. Personal communication, Ailo Gaup, 1993.

39. For example, see M. Harner, ed., Hallucinogens and Shamanism.

40. Neher, “Auditory Driving.”

41. Neher, “A Physiological Explanation.” See also Neher, “Auditory Driving.”

42. Jilek, Salish Indian Mental Health and Culture Change, 74–75.

43. Rouget, Music and Trance; Turow, “Auditory Driving as a Ritual Technology.”

44. For example, S. Harner, Immune and Affect Response to Shamanic Drumming; S. Harner and Tryon, “Psychoimmunological Effects of Shamanic Drumming”; Maxfield, “The Journey of the Drum.”

45. See Townsend, “Individualist Religious Movements.”


1. Ballard, “Mythology of Southern Puget Sound,” 129.

2. Eliade, Shamanism, 5.

3. For more information on states of consciousness, ordinary and nonordinary reality, and shamanism, see M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman.

4. Eliade, Shamanism, 85.

5. Baer and Snell, “An Ayahuasca Ceremony among the Matsigenka,” 61, 70.

6. Elkin, Aboriginal Men of High Degree (1977), 85.

7. Park, “Paviotso Shamanism,” 103.

8. M. Harner, “The Sound of Rushing Water,” 28; M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 115–30.

9. Rasmussen, Intellectual Culture of the Iglulik Eskimos, 113.

10. For example, Bogoras, “The Chukchee-Religion,” 374, 413.

11. For example, Popov, “Sereptie Djarouskin of the Nganasans.”

12. For example, Peri and Wharton, “Sucking Doctor,” 30, 34.

13. Thalbitzer, “The Heathen Priests of East Greenland,” 3.

14. M. Harner, The Jívaro, 116–25, 154.

15. M. Harner, field notes, 1960–61.

16. Cf. Rasmussen, Intellectual Culture of the Iglulik Eskimos.

17. Wallace, Miracles and Modern Spiritualism (1896).

18. Gayton, “Yokuts-Mono Chiefs and Shamans,” 390.

19. M. Harner, The Jívaro, 134–43.

20. M. Harner, “A Possible Survival of Celtic Shamanism in Ireland,” 3, 9.

21. For example, M. Harner, The Jívaro, 157–60.

22. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009.

23. M. Harner, “A Core Shamanic Theory of Dreams,” Shamanism 2010: 3.


1. See also Eliade, Shamanism, 259ff.

2. See also Eliade, Shamanism, 269ff.

3. Bogoras, “Ideas of Space and Time in the Conception of Primitive Religion,” 235.

4. Ibid., 205–265.

5. Few ethnographers obtained firsthand descriptions from indigenous shamans regarding what they had just experienced when journeying. The task to find such cases remains challenging and requires a massive project in itself.

6. Please see the Acknowledgments section.

7. A diligent effort was made to locate the writers of the journey accounts to obtain permission to publish them here, and to give their names. If someone was overlooked or could not be found, please advise the Executive Director of the Foundation for Shamanic Studies so that future printings of this book can be changed if necessary. Alternatively, a person’s report can be eliminated from future printings of the book if requested. The email address of the Foundation is



1. Rasmussen, Intellectual Culture of the Iglulik Eskimos, 119.

2. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 71–72, 93.

3. Ibid., 57–68.

4. For background regarding them in Native North America, see Benedict, “The Concept of the Guardian Spirit in North America.”

5. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 58.

6. For example, M. Harner, “The Sound of Rushing Water” and The Way of the Shaman.

7. The perfume to which they were referring came from little bags of sweet smelling seeds that they hung around their necks.

8. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 76–103.

9. Ibid., 24–38.

10. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, 158–61.

11. Personal communication, Bill Graves, Pomo shaman, Upper Lake, California. 1952.

12. Since we are using auditory driving, not ayahuasca, do not expect to encounter its characteristic reptilian forms I mention elsewhere (such as M. Harner, The Jívaro, 6–7). Those forms tend to be part of the effects of ayahuasca. When the potion is strong and properly prepared, drinkers often see reptiles and felines in the Middle and Lower World. (See M. Harner, “Common Themes in South American Indian Yagé Experiences” and Naranjo, “Psychological Aspects of the Yagé Experience.”) This does not seem to be typical of journeyers using auditory driving.

13. No name, no date. UMR.

14. No name, no date. UMR.

15. Eliade, Shamanism, 94.

16. No name, no date. UMR.

17. Anonymous, August 16, 1988. UMR.

18. Beveridge, The Art of Scientific Investigation.


1. Adaptation by Cloutier, Spirit, Spirit, 61–63. Reprinted by permission, Copper Beech Press, © 1980 by David Cloutier.

2. M. Harner, “The Role of Hallucinogenic Plants in European Witchcraft.”

3. For example, Manker, “Die lappische Zaubertrommel, II,” 19ff., 61ff., 124ff.

4. On both these trips I was accompanied by the late Heimo Lappalainen (a Finnish ethnologist and friend who acted as interpreter), and on one of them, also by my wife, Sandra Harner.

5. After great difficulty, we found one individual in northern Norway during the early 1980s who agreed to make a classic Sami “bowl” drum with a painted cosmological skin head, with its reindeer antler divination “hammer” and bone pointer, along with instructions on its use. Another type of Sami drum from northern Finland was acquired in 2012. Great secrecy regarding the identity of the drum makers was required in both cases. One of the two drums is kept in the Shamanic Knowledge Conservatory of the Foundation for Shamanic Studies in Marin County, California. The other is in a private collection.

6. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009.

7. Ibid.

8. Personal communications from Ulchi and Nanai shamans of the lower Amur River region of southeastern Siberia while visiting Seattle, Washington, 1996.

9. Personal communication, Vladimir Basilov, Moscow, 1982.

10. See also Walsh, The World of Shamanism, 157–64.

11. Except where it lingered a while among the Sami, as noted on page 98–101.

12. For example, Wilbert, “Tobacco and Shamanistic Ecstasy,” 63.

13. Schröder, “Zur Religion der Tujen des Sininggebietes,” 225.

14. M. Harner, “The Role of Hallucinogenic Plants in European Witchcraft.”

15. Ibid., 144.

16. Bogoras, “The Chukchee-Religion,” 331.

17. Ibid.

18. See the Sami drum in Plate 6 that shows a figure (a god or shaman) on a sled pulled by a reindeer. While the Sami probably had a role in the origins of the Santa Claus myth, there seems little support for recent popular assertions that the Sami used the Amanita muscaria mushroom to make their shamanic journeys. A Sami shaman I have known for years told me in 2012 that he knew of no historical or traditional information indicating the Sami use of the mushrooms for shamanic journeying, although he said it was known that they used them in other shamanic rituals. He prefers to remain anonymous.

19. Irving, A History of New York, 81.

20. For example, Anisimov, “Cosmological Concepts,” 85–89, 93, 96.

21. Bacigalupo, Shamans of the Foye Tree.

22. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009.

23. For example, Anisimov, “Cosmological Concepts,” 85–89, 93, 96; Partanen, “A description of Buriat Shamanism.”

24. Cf. Eliade, Shamanism, 259–66, 269–74.

25. Harva, “Der Baum des Lebens,” 41, 57; Harva, “Finno-Urgic [and] Siberian Mythology,” 341; Harva, “Die religiösen Vorstellungen,” 58ff.

26. Polomé, “Germanic Religion,” 524–25; see also Harva above.

27. For example, Eriksson, “Saami Shamanism”; M. Harner, “The Role of Hallucinogenic Plants in European Witchcraft”; Rydving, The End of Drum-Time, 56–92.

28. See Baer and Snell, “An Ayahuasca Ceremony.”

29. Personal communication, Dr. Batbayar Conchidorj, Mongolian National University, 2008.

30. Polomé, “Germanic Religion,” 525.

31. Anisimov, “Cosmological Concepts,” 86.

32. For example, Birlea, “Folklore,” 365.

33. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009.

34. G. Turner, Samoa, 199.

35. Harva, “Der Baum des Lebens,” 41, 57; Harva, “Finno-Urgic [and] Siberian Mythology,” 341; Harva, “Die religiösen Vorstellungen,” 58ff.

36. Eliade, Shamanism, 409.

37. See Roerich, Shambhala.

38. Ibid.

39. Goldman, “The Cubeo.”

40. Mooney, The Ghost-Dance Religion, 970. Today, there is widespread use of this song, with a new melody, to honor the Ghost Dance prophet Wovoka, with a word changed: “Wearing my long wing feathers as I fly.”

41. Bogoras, “The Chukchee-Religion,” 331.

42. Räsänen, “Regenbogen-Himmelsbrücke.”

43. Eliade, Shamanism, 118, 132–43.

44. Elkin, Aboriginal Men of High Degree (1945), 139–40.


1. Transcribed by Mongush Kenin-Lopsan. Kenin-Lopsan, Calling the Bear Spirit, 24.

2. Odigan, Chosen by the Spirits, 132.

3. Personal communications with Tuvan shamans and Foundation for Shamanic Studies field-workers in Tuva, including those of FSS Europa, 1994–2010.

4. Ridington, Trail to Heaven.

5. Bacigalupo, Shamans of the Foye Tree.

6. See M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 50–53, for details regarding the drumbeat.

7. E. Turner, “The Reality of Spirits,” 29. After contemplating her experiences during the ascension, she realized that the spirits were teaching her that they were real, not a creation of her imagination.

8. Drury, The Elements of Shamanism, viii–ix.

9. Ibid., ix.

10. No name, no date. UMR.

11. Personal report, Bradford Keeney, PhD, February 2, 2007.

12. Scott Balderson, June 1992. UMR.

13. Julia Meredith, November 19, 1984. UMR.

14. Kappy Strahan, October 14–19, 2001. UMR.

15. Anonymous, 1995–98. UMR.

16. For example, Bogoras, “The Chukchee-Religion,” 331; Elkin, Aboriginal Men of High Degree (1945), 86.

17. Elkin, Aboriginal Men of High Degree (1945), and Howitt, Native Tribes, 501ff.

18. See M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 23, 109–12.

19. No name, no date. UMR.

20. The patented device is kept at the Shamanic Knowledge Conservatory of the Foundation for Shamanic Studies.

21. E. Pierson, 1995. UMR.

22. Anonymous, 1999–2002. UMR.

23. Catherine Rose, May 5–17, 2000. UMR.

24. No name, no date. UMR.

25. Sally Cantrell, 2011. UMR.

26. Irene Lo, October 14, 2001. UMR.

27. Anonymous, no date. UMR.

28. Lora Jansson, October 21, 2002. UMR.

29. Datch Baudisch, October 28–November 2, 2001. UMR.

30. Katia Bask, 1998. UMR.

31. Nancy Dunn, 2000. UMR.

32. Marcia Herman, June 4, 1996. UMR.

33. Joana Morris, October 1998. UMR.


1. Ridington, Trail to Heaven, 93.

2. Popov, “Sereptie Djarouskin of the Nganasans,” 141.

3. Sharon Kehoe, 1987. UMR.

4. Karrie Sawyer, 1992. UMR.

5. No name, no date. UMR.

6. No name, no date. UMR.

7. No name, no date. UMR.

8. No name, no date. UMR.

9. No name, no date. UMR.

10. Eliade, Shamanism, 93ff., 96ff.

11. No name, no date. UMR.


1. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 113–34.

2. For example, Achterberg, Imagery in Healing.

3. Ozmo Piedmont, November 19, 1990. UMR.

4. Anonymous, no date. UMR.

5. Diane Polasky, October 27–28, 1990. UMR.

6. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 110.

7. No name, no date. UMR.

8. For more information, see M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 113–30.

9. For example, see Eliade, Shamanism, 202.

10. No name, no date. UMR.

11. Anonymous, November 2, 1993. UMR.

12. Jim Nourse, May 14, 1985. UMR.

13. Anonymous, November 23, 1992. UMR.


1. For example, see Eliade, Shamanism, 36ff; 53ff.

2. Popov, “Sereptie Djarouskin of the Nganasans,” 84–95.

3. No name, August 1987. UMR.

4. M. Harner, The Jívaro, 143; M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009.

5. Eliade, Shamanism, 21.

6. M. Harner, The Jívaro, 138.

7. Rasmussen, Intellectual Culture of the Iglulik Eskimos, 112.

8. Ibid., 118–19.

9. Peters, “Mystical Experience in Tamang Shamanism.”

10. For example, see Elkin, Aboriginal Men (1977), 49–50.

11. Métraux, “Le shamanisme chez les indiens,” 216.

12. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009. Among the Reindeer Inuit, I found that quartz crystals were unknown and therefore not part of the shamans’ practice.

13. Elkin, Aboriginal Men (1945), 94.

14. Ibid., 85.

15. Ksenofontov, Legendy i Rasskazy u Yakutov, 44–95, cited in Eliade, Shamanism, 37.

16. Spencer and Gillen, The Northern Tribes of Central Australia, 480–81.

17. Ibid., 487–88.

18. Berndt, “Wuradjeri Magic and Clever Men” (1946), 334–38.

19. Eliade, Shamanism, 138.

20. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009; Elkin, Aboriginal Men (1945), 44, 103, 120.

21. Nicolina Halvorson, August 17, 1988. UMR.

22. Spencer and Gillen, The Northern Tribes of Central Australia, 480–81.

23. Rasmussen, The Intellectual Culture of Iglulik Eskimos.

24. Mujiba Cabugos, August 21, 1987. UMR.

25. Personal communication, Larry Peters, August 13, 2001. For background information on Tamang shamanism, see Peters, “Mystical Experience in Tamang Shamanism.”

26. See Evans-Wentz (ed.), Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines, 277–334.

27. Anonymous, June 6, 2007. UMR.

28. Tom Snell, October 21, 2002. UMR.

29. Catherine Rose, November 1999. UMR.

30. Darla Barclay, May 5–10, 2002. UMR.

31. Robbie Staufer, October 12–16, 2007. UMR.

32. Kim Roseland, October 21–26, 2007. UMR.

33. Quasha, “Speech by Essie Parish.”


1. Kant, Vorlesungen über Psychologie, 132. See also M. Harner, “Science, Spirits, and Core Shamanism.”

2. Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery, 63, 68–69.

3. While his book first appeared in 1874, it was followed by other editions, the last one being published in 1896.

4. Wallace, Miracles and Modern Spiritualism (1896), xvi.

5. Bush, “Distressing Western Near-Death Experiences,” 81.

6. Tart, “Dialogue with Michael Harner” transcript, 4.

7. Ibid.

8 Ibid., 5.

9. For example, Grof, When the Impossible Happens. Stanislav Grof devotes this innovative book to accounts of various “impossible” phenomena he has witnessed and views as synchronicities.

10. I first wrote about my experiments regarding the unbound shaman phenomenon in 1999 (M. Harner, “Science, Spirits, and Core Shamanism”). Until 2003, I taught only the very most advanced students this skill. I had discovered that the tighter the bindings, the easier it was to get free—in my view because the spirits were likely to feel compassion proportional to the suffering of the person asking for their help. At that time I also shared the discovery with anthropologist Bill Lyon, a student of the yuwipi practice.

11. Webster’s New Universal Unabridged Dictionary.

12. Walsh, The World of Shamanism, 157–64. Also, M. Harner, “Unpublished Lectures in Shamanism,” 1990 and subsequent years.

13. No name, March 17, 1985. UMR.

14. No name, August 26, 1982. UMR.

15. Rob Ashby, 2000. UMR.

16. Terry Jackson, June 13, 1988. UMR.

17. Eliade, ed., Encyclopedia of Religion, vol. 16 (Index), 278.

18. Ibid., vol. 11, 188.

19. Widengren, The Ascension of the Apostle, 7.

20. Ibid., 40.

21. Harva, “Die religiösen Vorstellungen,” 172.

22. Widengren, The Ascension of the Apostle, 22–24.

23. Ibid., 7 passim. On page 7, Widengren notes that use of the word “book” instead of “tablet” was occurring “perhaps when tablets were becoming obsolete as vehicles of writing.”

24. No name, July 2, 1981. UMR.

25. Pamela Sampel, 2000. UMR.

26. No name, January 1983. UMR.

27. Widengren, The Ascension of the Apostle, 80, 80 n. 4, 84.

28. Sandra Bundy, 2008. UMR.

29. Personal communications, 2010, 2011, and 2012.


1. Cline, “Religion and World View,” 137.

2. Ibid., 148.

3. Ibid., 143.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., 138 passim, 144.

6. Ibid., 138.

7. Ibid., 136, 138.

8. Guthrie, The Nature of Paleolithic Art, 128ff.

9. Duday and Garcia, “L’ichnologie ou la mémorie des roches,” 64.



1. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 24–38.

2. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009.

3. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 25.

4. Ibid., 25–26.



The summary presented in this appendix was adapted from “Core Practices in the Shamanic Treatment of Illness,” Shamanism (2000), vol. 13, nos. 1 & 2 (combined issue), 19–30, by Michael Harner, PhD, and Sandra Harner, PhD.

1. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman.

2. M. Harner, “A Core Shamanic Theory.”

3. Cowan, Shamanism as a Spiritual Practice.

4. Darwin, On the Origin of Species.

5. Darwin, The Descent of Man.

6. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, xix–xxii, 21–22.

7. E. Turner, “The Reality of Spirits,” 28–32.

8. Dossey, Healing Words, 150–55.

9. For example, see Neher, “Auditory Driving” and “A Physiological Explanation;” Maxfield, “Effects of Rhythmic Drumming” and “The Journey of the Drum;” S. Harner, Immune and Affect Response; and S. Harner and W. Tryon, “Psychoimmunological Effects,” 196–204.

10. For example, M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 31.

11. Ibid., 116–18.

12. M. Harner, Unpublished field, experiential, and case data, 1952–2009.

13. M. Harner, The Jívaro, 155.

14. These views on soul retrieval for Westerners evolved during the past decade and led to the development of core soul retrieval. Its methodology differs from that given in Ingerman, Soul Retrieval, and necessitates specific training.

15. M. Harner, Unpublished Lectures in Shamanism, 1978–2011.

16. M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 69–72.

17. For the sucking extraction technique, see M. Harner, The Way of the Shaman, 113–30.

18. The Foundation’s address is P.O. Box 1939, Mill Valley, California 94942;

19. See note 24.